- Atlas Obscura on the comeback of the only remaining rhyncocephalian, the tuatara (Sphenodon). Breeding programs having more tuataras than they know what to do with is a nice problem to have. (I know people who, through zoo connections, have handled tuataras. I’ve never so much as seen one in the flesh.)
- Kenya has banned the export of various snakes, including the African Rock Python (Python sebae), due to the impact of collecting and poaching on wild populations. I would have thought that there wouldn’t be much demand, relatively speaking, for the large and nasty African Rock Python, but they’ve been collected so much that, like overfished species, their full-grown size in the wild has diminished. [via]
- A plan to reintroduce the Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) to an island in the Quabbin Reservoir in Massachusetts is running into opposition from local residents, though the island is a more isolated and remote reintroduction site than just about any other alternative. [via]
- The discovery of a rattlesnake in a Texas home led to 23 more turning up in the cellar, where they’d been overwintering.
- Ceal Klingler writes about the time that a Panamint Rattlesnake (Crotalus stephensi) came by for a visit. [via]
- That Arizona bill allowing snakes to be shot within city limits — which I mentioned in my last roundup — has apparently passed.
- The Mexican Garter Snake (Thamnophis eques) is endangered in Arizona, so residents presumably still can’t shoot it. It was believed to have disappeared from the Colorado River system, but it was recently spotted near Lake Havasu City, which has wildlife officials scratching their heads a bit. [via]
- I knew about caudal luring — when a predator wiggles uses its tail (usually wiggling it) to attract prey — but this report of Puff Adders (Bitis arietans) using their tongues to do it is something else.
- Painted turtles (Chrysemys) don’t leave the water to hibernate, even when it freezes: they spend the winter under ice. How does that work? How do they breathe? The Nature Conservancy’s Cool Green Science blog explains.
Five things make a post:
- New tree frog genus. North American (and a few Asian) tree frogs previously included in the genus Hyla — including Gray and Green Tree Frogs — have been moved to a new, sister genus, Dryophytes, thanks to a major revision of tree frog taxonomy (PDF). This follows other moves to split genera that spanned continents: Bufo (toads), Rana (true frogs) and Elaphe (rat snakes) have all been split up; North American toads are now Anaxyrus, North American true frogs are now Lithobates (except on the Pacific coast), and North American rat snakes are now Pantherophis. So this is not really a surprise move.
- Water snake outreach. The Lake Erie Water Snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum) remains on Canada’s endangered species list, but it was removed from the U.S. list in 2011, after a rebound in its U.S. population, which now numbers 10,000 adults. An invasive fish, the round goby, has something to do with it: the water snakes happily feed on them. But public outreach played a role as well. On Cool Green Science, the Nature Conservancy’s blog, Ted Williams looks at the outreach efforts of Dr. Kristin Sanford, whose research showed that habitat loss was less of a factor than human persecution. Her (now quite dated) website: Respect the Snake.
- Don’t shoot snakes. An Arizona bill that would lift a ban on firing a gun within city limits if it’s to shoot a rat or a snake is facing opposition — from people opposed to shooting snakes.
- Do snakes fart? Scientists are building an animal fart database, and yes, snakes are included. While passing gas might not be a good sign for an obligate carnivore, if by fart we mean making noise while defecating, I can attest that snakes certainly do. (With some of my larger and stinkier charges, I usually hear it before I smell it — at least if I’m in the same room.)
- Stressed snakes strike first. A snake’s background level of stress — rather than the stress of encounter, handling or confinement — may determine how likely it is to strike, according to a new study. [LiveScience]
The Pontiac and Ottawa Valley Writers Circle, a new group for fiction writers in my neck of the woods, is having its inaugural meeting next month in Portage-du-Fort. It seems a bit excessively structured for a group that’s just getting started, but is probably something I ought to check out — assuming they’re open to speculative fiction writers, that is. Coverage in The Daily Observer.
What I like most about Arrival (which, believe it or not, I still haven’t managed to see) is that it’s stimulating interest in Ted Chiang’s work. People who haven’t read him are in for a real treat. (The book you want is Stories of Your Life and Others.) Now Chiang has gotten that rare thing for a science fiction writer: a profile in The New Yorker, in which his legendary reticence — he’s laconic to the point of monosyllaby — is on full display. (I’ve met him: he’s like that in real life.)
In last week’s post about opposing the Trump administration (which kind of went viral, much to my surprise), I mentioned Gene Sharp, who, as I said, literally wrote the book — or rather, books — on nonviolent resistance. In a piece profiling Sharp that appeared on the Scientific American blog network last November, John Horgan noted something that’s very important about Sharp’s point of view: his nonviolence isn’t born out of principle; it’s pragmatic. Violence, “even in the service of a just cause, often causes more problems than it solves, leading to greater injustice and suffering. Hence the best way to oppose an unjust regime is through nonviolent action.” Sharp doesn’t advocates nonviolence because it’s kinder, gentler, more compassionate or otherwise better; he advocates it because it works. (Photo: Albert Einstein Institution)
Some links on venom, rattlesnakes, and rattlesnake venom:
- In April, BBC Earth explored venom overkill — why are jellyfish, snake and other creatures far more venomous than they need to be, especially given the metabolic cost of producing venom? The answer is deceptively simple: “[t]here’s no such thing as absolute toxicity” — venom is tailored to specific prey that may have evolved resistance to it.
- Most North American rattlesnake venom lacks neurotoxins, but a recent study finds that their common ancestor did have the genetic ability to produce neurotoxic venom 22 million years ago. That ability has since been lost to specialization (see above): Western and Eastern
Diamondbacks lost the ability to produce neurotoxins about six million years ago; Mojave Rattlesnakes, whose venom is neurotoxic, lost a myotoxin gene about four million years ago. [Science News]
- A 36-year study of a population of Timber Rattlesnakes in the Adirondacks found that female rattlesnakes waited, on average, until they were 10 years old before having their first litter, and that most had only one litter in their whole lives. This has serious conservation implications. [via]
Five (relatively recent) things make a post:
- BBC Earth on snake fungal disease: “In a few species snake fungal disease is having a truly devastating impact. ‘The main species I look at is a rattlesnake called the eastern massasauga,’ says Allender. ‘They have a 92.5% mortality rate from the disease.’”
- Wildlife biologist Andrew DuBois takes great photos of wild North American reptiles and amphibians. See his Flickr and Instagram accounts. I’m fond of the garter snake shots, of course, but the species coverage in general is quite comprehensive. (Spadefoots! Ensatinas! Thread snakes!)
- On Quora I answered a rather dumb question: How would you defeat a large snake that decided to attack you? “The short version: I wouldn’t need to, and if I did need to, I wouldn’t be able to.” Read on for the long version.
- Maclean’s asks what’s killing the animals at Calgary Zoo — they’ve had a rash of sometimes-bizarre deaths, most recently seven penguins. But one stood out, at least to me: “one zookeeper resigned after starving a corn snake to death.” I have kept and raised dozens of corn snakes. They’re the easiest snake out there. As I said on Twitter, “if a zoo can’t keep a CORN SNAKE alive — something 8-year-olds manage to do all the time — that’s a serious red flag.”
- Many snakes, including hognose snakes and European grass snakes, feign death as a defence mechanism. I didn’t know that indigo snakes did it too — at their size, I didn’t think they needed to.
Analog and Asimov’s Science Fiction are switching to a bimonthly schedule as of January 2017. The magazines currently publish 10 issues a year, with two of those issues being double issues. The amount of fiction published won’t change, but publishing it in fewer issues ought to help with costs somewhat (postage, if nothing else).
Fun fact: back in the 1980s, both magazines were tetraweeklies — publishing 13 issues a year, one every four weeks.
Jean-Claude Savoie, the owner of the African Rock Python that killed two young boys as they slept in August 2013, has been found not guilty of criminal negligence causing death: Canadian Press, CBC News. The verdict comes after an eight-day trial that focused on a ventilation pipe the python escaped through, and whether Savoie was negligent in not securing it, or honestly believed the snake couldn’t squeeze through it.
The trial of Jean-Claude Savoie, the former owner of an African Rock Python that escaped its enclosure and killed two young boys as they slept, begins today. The incident took place in August 2013 and was, to put it mildly, well-reported in the media (I even wrote an op-ed for the Ottawa Citizen about it.) Savoie was subsequently arrested and charged with criminal negligence causing death.